Stephen Hawking: Complete Biography

As the world heads to a so-called ‘modern’ era, a lot has either evolved or changed for the best, and many have contributed to it. There are some people who have zeal to do something for society; these are the people who put their best foot forward to come up with spectacular inventions. Once; they set their aim at something, nothing can stop them from achieving it; no matter the obstacles that come in the way. One such great personality is known as Stephen Hawking who managed to come up with amazing discoveries despite his disability. As he said:

“However difficult life may seem, there is always something you can do and succeed at.”

He managed to make the most even in such a situation. At those times; nobody was there to assist the students in their academics, who could help with dissertation or could write on their behalf. Whatever it had done by the student himself. In the following post; the complete biography of Stephen Hawking will discussed so buckle yourself up to read the most amazing journey of one of the greatest theoretical physicists who made seminal contributions in the field of cosmology.

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Early life:

Stephen Hawking was born in England on 8TH January 1962. He was the eldest of four siblings whose father was the research biologist and mother was a medical research secretary. This can be considered one of the reasons for his interest in science. However; the subjects that intrigued him were math’s and physics.


He joined Oxford University to study physics and later got enrolled in Cambridge to achieve his PhD degree.  At Cambridge, he explored cosmology, the study of the universe as a whole. He was greatly interested in doing research work. Nowadays; students can’t go on besides taking research proposal help for their writing projects, but there he was doing what he loved the most.


Stephen Hawking was a normal kid until 21 years of his age but after that, he was diagnosed with motor neuron disease. This disease goes by the term Lou Gehrig or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. He was not expected to live beyond two years but he defied all odds and continued his studies in the meanwhile.  Research work has been carried out on this illness of Stephen Hawking by dissertation writers UK-based where they’ve given a detailed analysis of the disease and how it deteriorated Stephen Hawking’s health.

Professional career:

Stephen Hawking elected as the research fellow at Gonville and Caius College at Cambridge. Even after being diagnosed with the disease, he continued to be working there as a professional fellow. Later on, he was awarded membership in the royal society and was appointed as the Lucasian professor of mathematics at Cambridge. While he was performing his duties as a professional fellow in these institutes, he also continued studying basic laws governing the universe.

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Discoveries of Stephen Hawking:

Stephen Hawking was the theoretical physicist who used mathematics, physics, biology, chemistry, calculations, and a series of theories to understand the complex workings of the universe.  He worked on the interactions between matter and energy plus he was a cosmologist as well. Following are some of the major contributions or discoveries of Stephen Hawking:

  1. Singularities:

The first-ever discovery of Stephen Hawking was the discovery of singularities in the year 1970. He argued that the universe began as an infinitely small and infinitely dense point known as a singularity. He did path-breaking work in this field and suggested that gravitation produces singularities. He also told that the theory of Einstein predicted a singularity which was the big bang theory.

  1. Laws of black hole mechanics:

It was Stephen Hawking who suggested in the year 1971 that black holes formed in the chaotic environment of the earliest movements of the Big Bang. The pockets of matter over there can spontaneously reach the densities that are needed to make black holes. He came up with the following laws among which some proved to be right while some fell flat;

  • The total surface area of the black hole will never get smaller.
  • Black holes were hot.
  • Black holes can be characterized by three numbers; their mass, angular momentum, and charge.
  • Black holes emit radiation which they will continue to do so unless their energy gets evaporated.
  1. Cosmic inflation theory:

Even though; this theory was first proposed by the scientist Alan Guth that Big Bang’s problems can be fixed with an add-on but it was then further carried out by Stephen Hawking in the year 1982. It was Hawking who calculated the fluctuations of the quantum which means the small variations in the distribution of matter. It shows that inflation might give rise to the spread of galaxies across the universe.

  1. Hartle-Hawking state model:

Stephen Hawking with James Hartle published a model in the year 1983. This model explained that the time did not exist before the Big Bang explosion. This is why the concept of the beginning of the universe is meaningless. They stated that the universe does not have any initial boundaries in terms of space and time.

  1. A brief history of time:

In the year 1988, Stephen Hawking published his famous book “A brief history of time.” This book was all about the range of subjects in cosmology like black holes, the big bang, light cones, etc. it became the best-selling book of his time and broke all the records.

  1. Top-down theory on cosmology:

In the year 2006, Stephen Hawking and Thomas Hertog presented the “Top-down theory”. This theory of cosmology stated that the universe does not have one unique initial state but consisted of a superposition of many possible initial conditions.

Besides that; Hawking also published some other books by the names “The universe in a nutshell”, “God created the Integer”, and so on.

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Stephen Hawking has made his name in the books of physics, mathematics, and cosmology in a way that can never be forgotten. He has been recognized and awarded for his discoveries many times, some of which are as follows:

  • He holds thirteen honorary degrees.
  • He won Adam’s prize in the year 1966 for his work on singularities and geometry of space-time.
  • He was awarded CBE in 1892.
  • He was awarded fellow of honor in 1989.
  • He was honored with the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2009.
  • He has been given multiple awards, medals, and prizes. These awards include the Fundamental physics award, the Copley Medal, and the wolf foundation award.
  • He was a member of the Royal Society, the National academy of sciences of the US, and the pontifical academy of sciences.
  • He became a gravitational physics leader, professor of gravitation physics, and later on Lucasian professor of mathematics.
  • He has published many famous books varying from “The great scale of the space-time structure” to “My Brief History”.


Stephen Hawking was undoubtedly the greatest mind of the twenty-first century. He was the theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and British Science Communicator who changed the way we look at the universe today.  He made some incredible contributions to the sciences with his research which managed to make his mark in the books forever.


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